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Riscos Químicos / Natal - RN | Previne Consultoria
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O risco químico é a probabilidade de sofrer agravo a que determinado indivíduo está exposto ao manipular produtos químicos que podem causar-lhe danos físicos ou prejudicar lhe a saúde.

Consideram-se agentes de risco químico as substâncias, compostos ou produtos que possam penetrar no organismo do trabalhador principalmente pela via respiratória, nas formas de poeiras, fumos gases, neblinas, nevoas ou vapores, ou pela natureza da atividade, de exposição, possam ter contato ou ser absorvido pelo organismo através da pele ou por ingestão.

Os agentes químicos podem apresentar-se nos diversos estados físicos nos ambientes de trabalho, e durante os processos podem sofrer mudanças. A possibilidade de uma substância química entrar no organismo está associado ao seu estado físico.

Danos físicos e danos à saúde

Os danos físicos relacionados à exposição química incluem, desde irritação na pele e olhos, passando por queimaduras leves, indo até aqueles de maior severidade, causados por incêndio ou explosão. Os danos à saúde podem advir de exposição de curta e/ou longa duração, relacionadas ao contato de produtos químicos tóxicos com a pele e olhos, bem como a inalação de seus vapores, resultando em doenças respiratórias crônicas, doenças do sistema nervoso, doenças nos rins e fígado, e até mesmo alguns tipos de câncer.

Os principais efeitos causados pelas substâncias químicas

- Efeitos irritantes: são causados, por exemplo, por ácido clorídrico, ácido sulfúrico, amônia, soda cáustica, cloro, que provocam irritação das vias aéreas superiores.

- Efeitos asfixiantes: são causados, por exemplo, por gases como hidrogênio, nitrogênio, hélio, metano, acetileno, dióxido de carbono, monóxido de carbono e outros causam dor de cabeça, náuseas, sonolência, convulsões, coma e até a morte.

Efeitos anestésicos: a maioria dos solventes orgânicos assim como o butano, propano, aldeídos, acetona, cloreto de carbono, benzeno, xileno, alcoóis, tolueno, tem ação depressiva sobre o sistema nervoso central, provocando danos aos diversos órgãos. O benzeno especialmente é responsável por danos ao sistema formador do sangue.

Poeiras minerais: provêm de diversos minerais, como sílica, asbesto, carvão mineral, e provocam silicose (quartzo), asbestose (asbesto), pneumoconioses (ex.: carvão mineral, minerais em geral).

Poeiras vegetais: são produzidas pelo tratamento industrial, por exemplo, de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e de algodão, que causam bagaçose e bissinose, respectivamente.

Poeiras alcalinas: provêm em especial do calcário, causando doenças pulmonares obstrutivas crônicas, como enfisema pulmonar.

Poeiras incômodas: podem interagir com outros agentes agressivos presentes no ambiente de trabalho, tornando-os mais nocivos à saúde.

Fumos metálicos: provenientes do uso industrial de metais, como chumbo, manganês, ferro, etc., causando doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, febre de fumos metálicos, intoxicações específicas, de acordo com o metal.


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